(WTTV/WXIN) — A new nationwide study is revealing the deadliest cars on the road, and it points the finger squarely at muscle cars.

As part of the study, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) concludes that a vehicle’s image and how it is marketed can contribute to the risk of a deadly crash.

For the study, IIHS analyzed deadly crash reports from around the country involving 2020 model-year vehicles. Of the 21 vehicles with the most driver deaths, six of them are different versions of the Chevy Camaro, Dodge Challenger and Charger, and Ford Mustang. Three Dodge muscle cars also rank high in crashes that killed the driver in the other vehicle involved. 

This is the first time the institute’s study has included deaths of drivers in other vehicles involved, which changes the overall conclusion.

“We typically find that smaller vehicles have high driver death rates because they don’t provide as much protection,” said IIHS President David Harkey. “The muscle cars on this list highlight that a vehicle’s image and how it is marketed can also contribute to crash risk.”

The suggestion is that the image of vehicles may influence people to drive them. While bigger luxury cars are associated with ease and comfort, muscle cars harken back to the early days of drag racing with spoilers, hood scoops and racing stripes. 

The study points out that marketing for the Dodge Charger Hemi focuses on “ground-shaking” power and “bolting off the line.” Marketing for the Chevy Camaro promises the ability to “dominate on the daily” with an “extreme track performance package.”

While there is no way to prove it, the Institute concludes that the history and marketing of muscle cars may be contributing to aggressive driving.

You can read more about the study and see the full list on the Institute’s website.